A country's foreign policy, also known as foreign relations policy, consists of self-interest strategies selected by the government to protect its national interests, national security, and economic prosperity and to achieve its ideological goals within international relations surroundings. The approaches and diplomats are strategically employed to interact with other countries. Diplomacy, trade negotiations, intelligence, cultural exchanges all form part of the substance of foreign policy analysis.
Foreign policy analysis beginning is the country and its interactions with other countries, be this through multilateral institutions like United Nations. Rationalists believe that all countries’ foreign policies integrate to some basic parameters which includes what constitutes national interest, how it is figured out and ultimately implemented are decisive to understand the selection and responses encouraged by countries in international affairs. Moreover, material resources, demography and geographic position are other important features in this equation too. Bureaucracy plays a vital role in foreign policy. The emphasis on individual decision-maker, despite its comprehensions and judgments, usually seen to be excessively narrow. Even within the countries, the collision of views and prospects of foreign policy bureaucracies such as Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Trade clearly influence foreign policy decisions in ways that reflects conventional concerns first over consideration of national interest.
World has faced two wars in twentieth century and after that International relations are not only the important field of study and research but also became a public concern. Many researches in US and from other countries brought forth a wealth of research work and theory after Second World War and during 1960s. This research work was done only for International relations in the beginning but gradually, different theories began to grow around international systems, their relations and political structure apparently resulted to form a foreign policy in each sovereign state.
Nevertheless, in the 21st century there is largely unanimity among International relations scholars that some form of theoretical reflection has to play an integral part in analyzing foreign policy irrespective of whether it is primarily a tool for explaining specific cases or also one for prediction, whether it aims at general or country-specific theory. Therefore, this article is an overview of the field with an emphasis on both explicit forms of systemic and subs systemic International relations theory, as well as the broad varieties in understanding what such theorization might impose.
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